Evidence in the vaccination debate

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By Rabbi Yair Hoffman
By an overwhelming consensus, pediatricians, neurologists, and autism researchers disagree. They understand vaccines, as they are administered now, to be vital. It is a fundamental lack of hakaras ha’tov to be suspicious of a group of people that have saved so many lives. So many diseases have been wiped out or severely limited, and I strongly believe that the wholesale dismissal of the established medical view is a negation of hakaras ha’tov, which is a foundation of Yiddishkeit.
In the 17 years since the issue was first raised, there have been numerous studies published in reputable publications that show that there is no causal relationship between autism and vaccines.
For some people it still won’t matter, unfortunately.
There are various factors that contribute to the mindset of people in the anti-vaccination movement, just as these factors contribute to the mindset of people in the anti-seatbelt movement. When dealing with the anti-seatbelt people you can show them studies from here to tomorrow, and nothing you can do can change their minds. They are entrenched in their thinking.
There are also believers in shark-cartilage cures for cancer who spend tens of thousands of dollars on useless and expensive treatments.
Thankfully, the CDC and the government have ignored these views and have helped eliminate some terrible diseases through these vaccination programs.
Edward Jenner, the pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was called mi-chassidei umos ha’olam by the leading rabbis of the 19th century—for good reason. The immunologists and doctors who are on the frontlines preventing disease should be looked at as heroes—they have collectively saved millions of lives. Painting them as villains is, in this author’s opinion, a tragic and terrible lack of hakaras ha’tov. There are older people alive who lived through polio and its horrific devastation. The cavalier dismissal of the Salk and Sabin vaccines that some anti-vaxxers are prone to do is actually a matter that is painful to those that lived through it.
The chart below represents the benefits of vaccines.

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These articles debunk the association between autism and vaccines.

Albizzati, A., Moré, L., Di Candia, D., Saccani, M., Lenti, C.  Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders.  Minerva Pediatrica.  2012. Feb;64(1):27-31 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350041

Afzal, MA., Ozoemena, LC., O’Hare, A., Kidger, KA., Bentley, ML., Minor, PD. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK.   Journal Medical Virology.  2006 May;78(5):623-30.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16555271

Ahearn WH. What Every Behavior Analyst Should Know About the “MMR Causes Autism” Hypothesis.  Archive of Behavior Analysis in Practice.  2010.   Spring;3(1):46-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479671

Allan, GM., Ivers, N.  The autism-vaccine story: fiction and deception?  Canadian Family Physician.  Oct 2010; 56(10): 1013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2954080/

Andrews, N., Miller, E., Grant, A., Stowe, J., Osborn, V., & Taylor, B. (2004).  Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United Kingdom does not support a causal association.  Pediatrics, 114, 584-591. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15342825

Andrews, N., Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P.  Recall bias, MMR and autism.  Archives of Disease in Childhood.  Dec 2002; 87(6): 493–494.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1755823/pdf/v087p00493.pdf

Baird, G., Pickles, A., Simonoff, E., Charman, T., Sullivan, P., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., Afzal, M., Thomas, B., Jin, L., Brown, D.  Measles vaccination and antibody response in autism spectrum disorders.  Archives of Disease in Childhood.  2008 Oct;93(10):832-7. doi: 10.1136/adc.2007.122937. Epub 2008 Feb 5.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18252754

Berger, BE., Navar-Boggan, AM., Omer, SB.  Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination–United States, 2001-2010.   BMC Public Health.  2011 May 19;11:340. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-340. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21592401

Black, C., Kaye, JA.  Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism:  nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database.  British Medical Journal.  2002; 325(7361):419-21.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7361.419

Bower, H.  New research demolishes link between MMR vaccine and autism.  British Medical Journal.  1999.  Jun 19;318(7199):1643. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1116011/

Chen, W., Landau, S., Sham, P., & Fombonne, E. (2004).  No evidence for links between autism, MMR and measles virus.  Psychological Medicine34(3), 543-553. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15259839

Christie, B.  Scottish expert group finds no link between MMR and autism.  British Medical Journal,  2002. May 11;324(7346):1118. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1172158/

Clements, CJ., McIntyre, PB.  When science is not enough – a risk/benefit profile of thiomersal-containing vaccines.   Expert Drug Opinion Safety.  2006. Jan;5(1):17-29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16370953    

Dales, L., Hammer, S. J., & Smith, N. J. (2001). Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California.   JAMA285(9), 1183-1185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11231748

De Los Reyes, EC.  Autism and immunizations: separating fact from fiction.  JAMA Neurology.   2010;67(4):490-492. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.57. http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=799645

DeWilde, S., Carey, IM., Richards, N., Hilton, SR., Cook, DG.  Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination?  British Journal of General Practice.  2001 Mar;51(464):226-7.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1313956/

Demicheli, V., Jefferson, T., Rivetti, A., & Price, D. (2005).  Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev4. (a review of 31 studies) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22336803

DeStefano, F.  MMR vaccine and autism: a review of the evidence for a causal association.   Molecular Psychiatry.  2002;7 Suppl 2:S51-2.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12142951

DeStefano, F., Chen, RT.  Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: No epidemiological evidence for a causal association.  The Journal of Pediatrics.  2000 Jan;136(1):125.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10681219

DeStefano, F., Bhasin, T. K., Thompson, W. W., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., & Boyle, C. (2004).  Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan Atlanta.  Pediatrics113(2), 259-266. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14754936

DeStefano F., Price CS., Weintraub, ES.  Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism.   Journal of Pediatrics.  2013 Aug;163(2):561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.02.001. Epub 2013 Mar 30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545349

DeStefano F., Thompson, WW.  MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Feb;3(1):19-22.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761240

DeStefano F., Thompson, WW.  MMR vaccination and autism: is there a link?  Expert Opinion on Drug Safety.  2002 Jul;1(2):115-20.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12904145

DeStefano, F.  Chen, RT.  Negative association between MMR and autism.  Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):1987-8.  http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(99)00160-9/fulltext

DeStefano, F., Chen, RT.  Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination:  controversy laid to rest?  CNS Drugs.  2001. 2001;15(11):831-7.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11700148

D’Souza J., Todd T.  Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism or inflammatory bowel disease: the controversy should end.  Journal of Pedatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics.   2003 Jul;8(3):187-99. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-8.3.187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3469143/

D’Souza, Y., Fombonne, E., Ward, BJ.  No evidence of persisting measles virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with autism spectrum disorder.  Pediatrics.  2006 Oct;118(4):1664-75.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17015560

Doja, A., & Roberts, W. (2006).  Immunizations and autism: A review of the literature.  The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 33(4), 341-346. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17168158

Elliman, D., Bedford, H.   MMR: where are we now?  Archives of Disease in Childhood.   2007 Dec;92(12):1055-7. Epub 2007 Jul 11.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2066086/

Farrington, C., Miller, E., & Taylor, B. (2001).  MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association.  Vaccine19(27), 3632-3635. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11395196

Fitzpatrick, M.  The end of the road for the campaign against MMR.  British Journal of General Practice.  2007 Aug;57(541):679.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17688775

Fombonne, E., & Chakrabarti, S. (2001).  No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella–induced autism.  Pediatrics108(4), e58-e58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11581466

Fombonne, E., Zakarian, R., Bennett, A., Meng, L., & McLean-Heywood, D. (2006).  Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and links with immunizations.  Pediatrics 118(1) e139-e150; doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2993. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/1/e139

García-Fernández, L., Hernández, AV., Suárez Moreno, V., Fiestas, F.  Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.  Revista Peruana de Medicine Experimental Salud Publica. 2013 Apr;30(2):268-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949514

Gentile, I., Bravaccio, C., Bonavolta, R., Zappulo, E., Scarica, S., Riccio, MP., Settimi, A., Portella, G., Pascotta, A., Borgia, G.  Response to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in children with autism spectrum disorders.  In Vivo 2013 May-Jun;27(3):377-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23606694

Glasper, EA.  New evidence reaffirms the safety of the MMR vaccine.  British Journal of Nursing. 2002 Jun 27-Jul 10;11(12):794.  http://www.internurse.com/cgi-bin/go.pl/library/article.cgi?uid=10298;article=BJN_11_12_794_0

Halsey, NA., Hyman, SL.  Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference convened in Oak Brook, Illinois.   June 12-13, 2000.   Pediatrics.  2001 May;107(5):E84.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11331734

Hayney MS.  Vaccine Safety:  no link between thimerosal and autism.  Journal of American Pharmacists Association.  2003. 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):725-6. http://japha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1039011

Hertz-Picciotto, I., Green, P., Delwiche, L., Hansen, R., Walker, C., & Pessah, I. (2010).  Blood mercury concentrations in CHARGE Study children with and without autism. Environmental Health Perspectives118(1), 161-166. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900736 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20056569

Hensley, E. Briars, L.  Closer look at autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine.  Journal of American Pharmacist’s Association.  2003.  2010 Nov-Dec;50(6):736-41. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.10004.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071320

Heron, J., Golding, J., ALSPAC Study Team.  Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom does not support a causal association.  Pediatrics.  2004 Sep;114(3):577-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15342824

Hessel, L.  Mercury in vaccines.  Bulletin of the National Academy of Medicine. 2003;187(8):1501-10.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15146581

Hiroshi, T., Suzumura, S., Shirakizawa, F., Wada, N., Tanaka-Taya, K., Arai, S., Okabe, N., Ichikawa, H., Sato, T.  An epidemiological study on Japanese Autism concerning Routine Childhood Immunization History.  Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases.  56, 114-117, 2003. http://www0.nih.go.jp/JJID/56/114.pdf

Honda, H., Shimizu, Y., & Rutter, M. (2005).  No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.  46(6), doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01425.x.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15877763

Hornig, M., Briese, T., Bule, T., Bauman, M.L., Lauwers, G., Siemetzki, U., Hummel, K., Rota, PA., Bellini, WJ., O’Leary, JJ., Sheils, O., Alden, E., Pickering, L., Lipkin, W.I.  Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.  2008.  PLoS One, 3(9), e3140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769550

Hurley, A., Tadrous, M., Miller, ES.  Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiological studies.  Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics.  2010 Jul-Sep; 15(3): 173-181.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018252/

Hviid A., Stellfeld, M., Wohlfahrt, J., Melbye, M.   Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism – No causal relationship found.  JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1763-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519711

Insitute  of Medicine (US) Immunization Safety Review Committee.  Immunization Safety Review:  Vaccines and Autisms.  Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669467

Iqbal, S., Barile, JP., Thompson, WW., DeStefano, F.  Number of antigens in early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age 7–10years.  Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.  2013 Dec;22(12):1263-70. doi: 10.1002/pds.3482.  Epub 2013 Jul 12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847024

Jefferson, T., Price, D., Demicheli, V., Bianco, E., European Research Program for Improved Safety Surveillance (EUSAFEVAC) Project.  Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review.  Vaccine.  2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):3954-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12922131

Jick, H., Kaye, JA.  Epidemiology and possible causes of autism.  Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Dec;23(12):1524-30.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14695031

Kaye, J. A., del Mar Melero-Montes, M., & Jick, H.  Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis.  2001.  British Medical Journal322(7284), 460-463.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071423/

Klein, K. C., & Diehl, E. B.  Relationship between MMR vaccine and autism.   2004.  Annals of Pharmacotherapy38(7-8), 1297-1300.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15173555

Kuwaik, GA., Roberts, W., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Smith, IM., Szatmari, P., Modi, BM., Tanel, N., Brian, J.  Immunization uptake in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.  Autism.  2014 Feb;18(2):148-55. doi: 10.1177/1362361312459111. Epub 2012 Oct 8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045216

Lazoff, T., Zhong, L., Piperni, T., Fombonne, E.  Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders among children at the English Montreal School Board.  Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.  2010 Nov;55(11):715-20.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070699

Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Andrews, N., Miller, E., Stowe, J., & Taylor, B. (2003).  Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a North-east London population.  Archives of Disease in Childhood88(8), 666-670.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12876158

Madsen, K.K., Hviid, A., Vestergaard, M., Schendel, D., Wohlfahrt, J., Thorsen, P., Olsen, J., Melbye, M.  A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism.  2002.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(19), 1477-82.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12421889

Madsen KM., Hviid, A., Vestergaard, M., Schendel, D., Wohlfahrt, J., Thorsen, P., Olsen, J. Melbye, M.  MMR vaccination and autism–a population-based follow-up study.  Ugeskr Laeger.  2002.  Dec 2;164(49):5741-4.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12523209

Madsen, K.M., Lauritsen, M.B., Pedersen, C.B., Thorsen, P., Plesner, A.M., Andersen, P.H. & Mortensen, P.B.  Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism:  negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data.  2003.  Pediatrics, 112, 604-606. doi: 10.1542/peds.112.3.204 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12949291

Madsen, KM.  Vestergaard, M.   MMR and Autism:  what is the evidence for a causal association?  Drug Safety.  2004;27(12):831-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15366972

Makela, A., Nuorti, J., & Peltola, H. (2002).  Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination.  Pediatrics110(5), 957-963.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12415036

Marin, M., Broder, KR., Temte, JL., Snider, DE., Seward, JF., (CDC).  Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  MMWR Recommendations and Reports.  2010 May 7;59(RR-3):1-12.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448530

Marwick, C.  US Report finds no link between MMR and autism.  British Medical Journal.   May 5, 2001; 322(7294): 1083.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1120232/

MacDonald, NE., Pickering, L. Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee.  Autism Spectrum Disorder:  No causal relationship with vaccines.  Paediatric Child Health 2007;12(5):393-5.  http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/autistic-spectrum-disorder-no-causal-relationship-with-vaccines

Meadows, M.  IOM Report:  no link between vaccines and autism.  FDA Consumer. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):18-9.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15595144

Meilleur, AA., Fombonne, E.  Regression of language and non-language skills in pervasive development disorders.  Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.  2009 Feb;53(2):115-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01134.x. Epub 2008 Nov 27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054269

Miller, E.  Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism – epidemiologic evidence against such an association is compelling.  Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases.  2003 Jul;14(3):199-206.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12913832

Miller, E., Andrews, N., Grant, A., Stowe, J., Taylor, B.  No evidence of an association between MMR vaccine and gait disturbance.  Archives of Disease in Childhood.  2005.  Mar;90(3):292-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15723921

Miller, L., Reynolds J.  Autism and vaccination – the current evidence.  Journals for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing.  2009 Jul;14(3):166-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2009.00194.x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19614825

Mrozek-Budzyn, D., Kiełtyka, A.  The relationship between MMR vaccination and the number of new cases of autism in children.  Przeglad epidemiologiczny.  2008;62(3):597-604. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19108524

Mrozek-Budzyn, D., Kiełtyka, A.,  Majewska, R.  Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children:  a case-control study.  Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.  2010 May;29(5):397-400. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c40a8a. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19952979

Mrozek-Budzyn, D., Majewska, R. Kiełtyka, A. & Augustyniak, M.  Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism Przeglad epidemiologiczny.  2011, 65(3), 491-495. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22184954

Muhle, R., Trentacoste, SV., Rapin, I.  The genetics of autism.  Pediatrics. 2004 May;113(5):e472-86.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15121991

Nelson, KB., Bauman, ML.  Thimerosal and autism?  Pediatrics.  2003.  Mar;111(3):674-9.http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/3/674.long

Offit, PA., Coffin, SE.  Communicating science to the public:  MMR vaccine and autism.  Vaccine.  2003.  Dec 8;22(1):1-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14604564

Stratton, K., Ford, A., Rusch, E., Wright Clayton, E.  Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines; Institute of Medicine.  Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality.  Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012. (a review of more than ONE THOUSAND studies).  http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13164

Patja, A., Davidkin, I., Kurki, T.,  Marku, J., Kallio, T., Valle, M., Peltola, H.  Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up.  2000.  Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal.  2000;19:1127-34.  http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/MMR.pdf

Parker, S.K., Schwartz, B., Todd, J., Pickering, L.K.  Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data.  2004.  Pediatrics, 114, 793-804. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15342856

Parker, S. Todd, J., Schwartz., B., Pickering, L.K.  Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data.  2005.  Pediatrics. Jan;115(1):200.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15630018

Pichichero, ME., Cernichiari, E., Lopreiato, J., Treanor, J.  Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study.  Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12480426

Peltola, H., Patja, A., Leinikki, P., Valle, M., Davidkin, I., & Paunio, M.  No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study.  1998.  Lancet351(9112), 1327. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9643797

Plotkin, S., Gerber, J. S., & Offit, P. A. (2009).  Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses.  Clinical Infectious Diseases48(4), 456-461. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908388/

Price, C. S., Thompson, W. W., Goodson, B., Weintraub, E. S., Croen, L. A., Hinrichsen, V. L., DeStefano, F.  Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism.  2010.  Pediatrics126(4), 656-664. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837594

Roehr B.  Study finds no association between vaccines and autism.  2013.  British Medical Journal.  Apr 3;346:f2095. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2095. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554072

Richler, J., Luyster, R., Risi, S., Hsu, W. L., Dawson, G., Bernier, R., … & Lord, C. (2006). Is there a ‘regressive phenotype’ of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine?  A CPEA Study.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders36(3), 299-316. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729252

Rumke, HC., Visser, HK.  Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination.  Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde.  2004 Feb 21;148(8):364-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15032089

Schechter, R., Grether, JK.  Continuing increases in autism reported to California’s developmental services system: mercury in retrograde.  Archives of General Psychiatry.  2008 Jan;65(1):19-24. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18180424

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Thompson, WW., Price, C., Goodson, B., Shay, DK., Benson, P., Hinrichsen, BL., Lewis, E., Eriksen, E., Ray, P., Marcy, SM., Dunn, J., Jackson, LA., Lieu, TA., Black, S., Stewart, G., Weintraub, ES., Davis, RL., DeStefano, F.,  Vaccine Data Link Safety Team.  Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years.  New England Journal of Medicine.  2007 Sep 27;357(13):1281-92.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17898097

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